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Cambridge Social Decision-Making Lab

Department of Psychology

Jon Roozenbeek is a Lecturer in Psychology and Security at King's College London, Department of War Studies. 

Jon works on the psychology of intergroup conflict and (digital) media effects. His research comprises two major themes: modern propaganda and intergroup conflict (with a specialisation in the Russian-Ukrainian war), and understanding and countering misinformation, disinformation, and extremism. He has written two recent books: The Psychology of Misinformation and Propaganda and Ideology in the Russian-Ukrainian War.

At War Studies, Jon is part of the NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emergency Preparedness and Response.

He was the British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at the Cambridge Social Decision-Making Lab. He is also an Affiliated Lecturer in the Department of Psychology. His research focuses on misinformation, vaccine hesitancy, online extremism and inoculation theory. As part of his research, he co-developed the award-winning fake news games Bad NewsHarmony Square and Go ViralJon is also interested in social media research, agent-based modelling and natural language processing. His doctoral dissertation (University of Cambridge, 2020) examined media discourse and identity during the Donbas War in eastern Ukraine. 

More information: Google Scholar, ResearchGate, KCL.

inoculation theory
vaccine hesitancy
online extremism
information warfare


Misinformation, Inoculation Theory, Fake News, Vaccine Hesitancy, Online Extremism, Information Warfare, Ukraine, Russia


Key publications: 

Roozenbeek, J., & van der Linden, S. (2022). How to combat health misinformation: a psychological approach. American Journal of Health Promotion 36(3), 569-575. Doi: 10.1177/08901171211070958

Roozenbeek, J., Freeman, A.L.J., & van der Linden, S. (2021). How accurate are accuracy nudges? A pre-registered direct replication of Pennycook et al. (2020). Psychological Science 32(7), 1-10. Doi: 10.1177/09567976211024535

Saleh, N.*, Roozenbeek, J.*, McClanahan, W.P.M., Makki, F., & van der Linden, S. (2021). Active Inoculation Boosts Attitudinal Resistance against Extremist Persuasion Techniques – A Novel Approach towards the Prevention of Violent Extremism. Behavioural Public Policy. Doi: 10.1017/bpp.2020.60

Roozenbeek, J., Schneider, C.R., Dryhurst, S., Kerr, J., Freeman, A.L.J., Recchia, G., van der Bles, A.M., & van der Linden, S. (2020). Susceptibility to misinformation about COVID-19 around the world. Royal Society Open Science 7(2011199). Doi: 10.1098/rsos.201199

Roozenbeek, J., & van der Linden, S. (2020). Breaking Harmony Square: A game that “inoculates” against political misinformation. Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) Misinformation Review 1(8). Doi: 10.37016/mr-2020-47

Roozenbeek, J. (2020). Identity discourse in local newspapers before, during and after military conflict: a case study of Kramatorsk. Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization 28(3).

Roozenbeek, J., Maertens, R., McClanahan, W.P.M., van der Linden, S. (2020). Disentangling Item and Testing Effects in Inoculation Research on Online Misinformation: Solomon Revisited. Psychological and Educational Measurement 81(2), pp.1-23. Doi: 10.1177/0013164420940378

Roozenbeek, J., van der Linden, S., & Nygren, T. (2020). Prebunking interventions based on "inoculation" theory can reduce susceptibility to misinformation across cultures. Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) Misinformation Review 1(2). Doi: 10.37016//mr-2020-008

Roozenbeek, J., & Van der Linden, S. (2019). Fake news game confers psychological resistance against online misinformation. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications 5(65). Doi: 10.1057/s41599-019-0279-9

Roozenbeek, J., & Van der Linden, S. (2018). The Fake News Game: Actively Inoculating Against the Risk of Misinformation. Journal of Risk Research, Doi: 10.1080/13669877.2018.1443491

Other publications: 

Steenbuch Traberg, C., Roozenbeek, J., & van der Linden, S. (2022). Psychological Inoculation against Misinformation: Current Evidence and Future Directions. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Doi: 10.1177/00027162221087936

Rathje, S., Roozenbeek, J., Steenbuch Traberg, C., Van Bavel, J. J., & van der Linden, S. (2022). Letter to the Editors of Psychological Science: Meta-Analysis Reveals that Accuracy Nudges Have Little to No Effect for US Conservatives: Regarding Pennycook et. al (2020). Psychological Science.

Fong, A., Roozenbeek, J., Goldwert, D., Rathje, S., & van der Linden, S. (2021). The language of conspiracy: A psychological analysis of speech used by conspiracy theorists and their followers on Twitter. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 24(4), 606-623. Doi: 10.1177/1368430220987596

Van der Linden, S., Roozenbeek, J. , & Compton, J. (2020). Inoculating against misinformation about COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology 11(566790). Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.566790

Maertens, R., Roozenbeek, J., Basol, M., & van der Linden, S. (2020). The Long-term Effectiveness of Inoculation against Misinformation: Three Longitudinal Experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. Doi: 10.1037/xap0000315

Van der Linden, S., Panagopoulos, K., & Roozenbeek, J. (2020). You are fake news: the emergence of political bias in perceptions of fake news. Media, Culture & Society 42(3), pp. 460-470. Doi: 10.1177/0163443720906992

Basol, M., Roozenbeek, J., & van der Linden, S. (2020). Good news about Bad News: Gamified inoculation boosts confidence and cultivates cognitive immunity against fake news. Journal of Cognition 3(1) (2), pp. 1-9. Doi: 10.5334/joc.91

Teaching and Supervisions


PBS7: Influence and Persuasion in the Digital Age (lecturer/supervisor)

PBS3: Social and Developmental Psychology (supervisor)

SL12: Socialist Russia 1917-1991 (supervisor)

SL15: Topics in Slavonic Studies: Cultural Histories of the Present (lecturer/supervisor)

Lecturer in Psychology and Security at King's College London
Affiliated Lecturer in Psychology

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